The COVID pandemic has introduced uncertainty into major aspects of national and global society, including for schools. For example, there is uncertainty about how school closures last spring impacted student achievement, as well as how the rapid conversion of most instruction to an online platform this academic year will continue to affect achievement. Without data on how the virus impacts student learning, making informed decisions about whether and when to return to in-person instruction remains difficult. Even now, education leaders must grapple with seemingly impossible choices that balance health risks associated with in-person learning against the educational needs of children, which may be better served when kids are in their physical schools. Amidst all this uncertainty, there is growing consensus that school closures in spring likely had negative effects on student learning.
The physiological factors are sense perception, physical health, fatigue time and day of learning, food and drink, age and atmospheric conditions. Sensation and perception are the basis of all cognitive learning. Weaker the power of perception, lesser the amount of learning.
Geiser and Santelices , Acato , and Swart all argue that admission points which are a reflection of the previous performance influence future learning ability of students. Considine and Zappala argue that families where the parents are advantaged socially, educationally and economically foster a high level of achievement in their children. Sociocultural approaches to the process of learning are increasingly being applied by educationalists. Sociocultural theorists argue that individuals cannot be considered in isolation from their social and historical context and therefore it is necessary to look at the society and the developments occurring at a given time. The influence of these two agencies is constrained by the wider social and cultural systems into which they are embedded.