A thesis or dissertation [note 1] abbreviated diss. The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by country, university, or program, and the required minimum study period may thus vary significantly in duration. The word "dissertation" can at times be used to describe a treatise without relation to obtaining an academic degree.
A position paper sometimes position piece for brief items is an essay that presents an arguable opinion about an issue — typically that of the author or some specified entity. Position papers are published in academia , in politics , in law and other domains. The goal of a position paper is to convince the audience that the opinion presented is valid and worth listening to. Ideas for position papers that one is considering need to be carefully examined when choosing a topic, developing an argument , and organizing the paper. Position papers range from the simplest format of a letter to the editor , through to the most complex in the form of an academic position paper.