Until recently, epistemology—the study of knowledge and justified belief—was heavily individualistic in focus. The emphasis was on evaluating doxastic attitudes beliefs and disbeliefs of individuals in abstraction from their social environment. Social epistemology seeks to redress this imbalance by investigating the epistemic effects of social interactions and social systems. After giving an introduction, and reviewing the history of the field in sections 1 and 2, we move on to discuss central topics in social epistemology in section 3. These include testimony, peer disagreement, and judgment aggregation, among others. Section 4 turns to recent approaches which have used formal methods to address core topics in social epistemology, as well as wider questions about the functioning of epistemic communities like those in science.
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Like the other principles in the Declaration of Independence, this phrase is not legally binding, but has been widely referenced and seen as an inspiration for the basis of government. It was then further edited and adopted by the Committee of the Whole of the Second Continental Congress on July 4, Jefferson's "original Rough draught" is on exhibit in the Library of Congress. The Committee of Five edited Jefferson's draft. Their version survived further edits by the whole Congress intact, and reads: . We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal , that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
Liberty adolescents include: divorce, alcoholism in the
The relationship between Immanuel Kant — and David Hume — is a source of longstanding fascination. Much of the focus has been on their respective views in metaphysics and epistemology. Comparing their views also illuminates the landscape of eighteenth-century ethical thought.
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