Causewayed enclosures are a form of early Neolithic earthwork, characterized by the enclosure of an area with ditches that are interrupted by gaps, or causeways. Their purpose is not known. The site consists of four roughly concentric circular ditches; at least two ditches touch the outermost circuit from the outside, one of which is thought to date to about two thousand years after the earliest dated activity at the site. Whitehawk was first excavated in and again in the winter of —
Shoulder injuries in commercial truck drivers: A literature review
Shoulder Injuries - Emergency Department | EB Medicine
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Brachial plexus injury after shoulder dislocation: a literature review
NIOSH is the federal Institute responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injuries and illnesses. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH believes that the most effective way to prevent back injury is to implement an ergonomics program that focuses on redesigning the work environment and work tasks to reduce the hazards of lifting. However, in response to the increasing human and economic costs of back injury, companies have implemented numerous other measures, either in conjunction with or in place of sound ergonomics programs. For instance, there has been a dramatic increase in the use of industrial back belts. The decision to wear a back belt is a personal choice; however, NIOSH believes that workers and employers should have the best available information to make that decision.
Rebecca L. Am J Occup Ther ;65 1 — The objectives of this systematic review were 1 to identify, evaluate, and synthesize the research literature of relevance to occupational therapy regarding interventions for work-related shoulder conditions and 2 to interpret and apply the research literature to occupational therapy. In this systematic review, limited evidence from Level I studies was found to support exercise for shoulder pain; manual therapy and laser for adhesive capsulitis; conservative management of shoulder instability; early intervention without immobilization for specific, nondisplaced proximal humerus fractures; and exercise, joint mobilizations, and laser for patients with shoulder impingement. Further prospective studies are necessary for the delineation of specific surgical and therapeutic variables that facilitate positive outcomes in the treatment of patients with shoulder conditions.